Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-07-12 0.1

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-07-12 0.1

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-05-17 0.2

2011-09-07 0.1-7

2011-09-03 0.1-6

2011-03-10 0.1-5

2011-02-12 0.1-4

2009-02-03 0.1-3

2009-01-09 0.1-2

2009-01-03 0.1-1

We are happy to announce a new release of littler.
A few minor things have changes since the last release:

- A few new examples were added or updated, including use of the fabulous new docopt package by Edwin de Jonge which makes command-line parsing a breeze.
- Other new examples show simple calls to help with sweave, knitr, roxygen2, Rcpp's attribute compilation, and more.
- We also wrote an entirely new webpage with usage example.
- A new option
`-d | --datastdin`

was added which will read stdin into a data.frame variable`X`

. - The repository has been move to this GitHub repo.
- With that, the build process was updated both throughout but also to reflect the current
`git`

commit at time of build.

The code is available via the GitHub repo, from tarballs off my littler page and the local directory here. A fresh package will got to Debian's incoming queue shortly as well.

Comments and suggestions are welcome via the mailing list or issue tracker at the GitHub repo.This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

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2014-08-27 0.3

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2014-08-18 1.2

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2014-05-13 1.0

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2012-07-22 0.2-0

2012-06-18 0.1-0

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2012-11-13 0.1

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2014-06-13 0.2.0

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2013-08-11 0.9

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2013-10-22 0.8

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2011-04-01 0.6

2011-02-11 0.5

2009-08-06 0.4

2009-07-18 0.3

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-04-07 1.0-1

2013-04-05 1.0

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2012-07-17 0.9.5.1

2012-03-21 0.9.5

2009-10-14 0.9.2

2008-07-08 0.9

2007-02-11 0.8.4.2

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-06-16 1.0-0

2014-02-28 0.9-7

2013-04-25 0.9-6

2013-01-22 0.9.5

2013-01-17 0.9.4

2012-07-19 0.9.3

2012-01-09 0.9.2

2011-08-22 0.9.1

2011-08-20 0.9

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-02-23 2.16-2

2012-07-05 2.11-2

2012-05-30 2.11-1

2012-01-13 2.9-4

2011-12-27 2.9

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2010-02-02 1.0-5

2009-02-09 1.0-4

2008-06-18 1.0-3

2008-06-02 1.0-1

2008-05-30 1.0-0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2010-01-18 2.2

2009-07-01 2.1

2009-06-24 1.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-04-13 2.0.3

2012-09-11 2.0.2

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-05-30 0.9-7

2013-03-20 0.9-6

2012-03-14 0.9-5

2010-02-12 0.9-4

2009-09-24 0.9-3

2009-08-10 0.9-2

Another small new release of our BH package
providing Boost headers for use by R
is now on CRAN. This one brings a one-file change: the file

`any.hpp`

comprising
the Boost.Any library --- as requested by a fellow package maintainer needing
it for a pending upload to CRAN.
No other changes were made.
Courtesy of CRANberries, there is also a diffstat report for the most recent release. Comments and suggestions are welcome via the mailing list or issue tracker at the GitHub repo.## Changes in version 1.54.0-4 (2014-08-29)

Added Boost Any requested by Greg Jeffries for his nabo package

This post by Dirk Eddelbuettel originated on his Thinking inside the box blog. Please report excessive re-aggregation in third-party for-profit settings.

Analysis with Programming has recently been accepted as a contributing blog on Mathblogging.org, a blogosphere aiming to be the best place to discover mathematical writing on the web. And as a first post, being a member of the said site, I will do proving on the theory of probability. This problem by the way, is part of my first homework on my masteral. This is my solution and if you find errors, do let me know.

### Problem

### Solution

- If $\{A_k\}$ is either expanding or contracting, we say that it is monotone, and for monotone sequence $\{A_k\}$, $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty} A_n$ is defined as follows: \begin{equation}\nonumber \lim_{n\to \infty} A_n = \begin{cases} \displaystyle\bigcup_{k=1}^\infty A_k&\text{if}\;\{A_k\}\;\text{is expanding}\\[0.3cm] \displaystyle\bigcap_{k=1}^\infty A_k&\text{if}\;\{A_k\}\;\text{is contracting} \end{cases}. \end{equation} Prove the above equation.

*Proof.*If $\{A_k\}$ is either expanding or contracting, then for an infinite sequence $A_1,A_2,\cdots$ one can define two events from $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}A_n$, i.e. \begin{equation} \label{eq:limAn} \lim_{n\to \infty} A_n = \begin{cases} \displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)}\{A_k\}\\[0.3cm] \displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\} \end{cases}. \end{equation} Now the $\displaystyle\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\}$ and $\displaystyle\inf_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\}$ are defined as follows: \begin{equation}\nonumber \displaystyle\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k,\quad\mathrm{and}\quad \displaystyle\inf_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k. \end{equation} Hence, \begin{equation}\nonumber \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k,\quad\mathrm{and}\quad \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\inf_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k. \end{equation} Since $\displaystyle\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k$ is an event that*"at least one*$A_k$*occurs"*, then $\displaystyle\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty}A_k$ occurs for all $n$. This statement simply defines the intersection, and thus we have \begin{equation} \label{eq:sup} \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k = \displaystyle\bigcap_{n=1}^{\infty}\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k. \end{equation} Now for $\displaystyle\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k$, it can be observed that, for every $n$, $\{A_k\}$ must occur for all $k$, $k \in[n,\infty)$. This statement is sometimes not satisfied on some $n$, wherein an empty set is obtained if no common values between the sequence $\{A_k\}$ are observed. Therefore the event, $\displaystyle\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k$ occurs for some $n$, that is, \begin{equation} \label{eq:inf} \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\inf_{k\in [n,\infty)} \{A_k\} = \displaystyle\lim_{n\to \infty}\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k = \displaystyle\bigcup_{n=1}^{\infty}\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k. \end{equation} Finally, Equations (\ref{eq:sup}) and (\ref{eq:inf}) can now be equated to Equation (\ref{eq:limAn}), \begin{equation} \lim_{n\to \infty} A_n = \begin{cases} \displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n,\infty)}\{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcap_{n=1}^{\infty}\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k \\[0.3cm] \displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcup_{n=1}^{\infty}\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k \end{cases}.\nonumber \end{equation} Now if the sequence $\{A_k\}$ is expanding, then the inner union $\left(\displaystyle\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k\right)$ in $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ remains the same independently of $n$, so that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcup_{k=1}^{\infty} A_k$. On the other hand, the inner intersection $\left(\displaystyle\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k\right)$ in $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$, is equal to $A_n$, implying that the limit is $\displaystyle\bigcup_{n=1}^{\infty} A_n$. Since both $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ and $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ converge to the same event, then that proves the first part of the problem.

If the sequence $\{A_k\}$ is contracting. Then the inner union $\left(\displaystyle\bigcup_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k\right)$ in $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ is equal to $A_n$, so that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\} = \displaystyle\bigcap_{n=1}^{\infty} A_n$. On the other hand, the inner intersection $\left(\displaystyle\bigcap_{k=n}^{\infty} A_k\right)$ in $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$, remains the same independently of $n$, and thus the limit is $\displaystyle\bigcap_{k=1}^{\infty} A_k$. Since both $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\sup_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ and $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\inf_{k\in [n, \infty)}\{A_k\}$ converge to the same event, then that proves the second part of the problem.$\hspace{12cm}\blacksquare$

by Al-Ahmadgaid Asaad (noreply@blogger.com) at August 29, 2014 06:38 PM

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-01-02 2.0.2

2014-01-01 2.0.1

2013-12-23 2.0.0

2012-11-30 1.9.2

2012-11-28 1.9.1

2011-12-02 1.8

2011-11-24 1.7

2011-10-19 1.6

2011-09-25 1.5

2011-08-11 1.4

2011-06-28 1.3

2011-06-15 1.2

2011-04-26 1.1.1

2011-03-31 1.1.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-04-13 1.1-36

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2013-12-23 1.3.0

2011-12-02 1.2.2

2011-10-19 1.2

2011-04-26 1.1.2

2011-03-31 1.1.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2011-07-07 0.0.1

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2010-09-19 0.9.1

2010-06-25 0.9

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-02-25 1.0.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-02-25 1.0.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-02-05 1.0.2

2013-12-08 1.0.1

2013-12-06 1.0

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2010-06-25 0.9

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2014-02-23 2.11-3

2012-07-05 2.11-2

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2012-01-29 2.9-6

2012-01-27 2.9-5

2012-01-14 2.9-4

2012-01-04 2.9-2

2012-01-03 2.9-1

2011-12-27 2.9

Previous versions (as known to CRANberries) which should be available via the Archive link are:

2013-12-16 2013.12

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2012-10-12 1.0.4

2012-08-10 1.0.3

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2013-07-07 0.0.5

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2012-05-23 0.0.3

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2011-07-07 0.0.1

In population studies on the etiology of disease, one goal is the estimation of the fraction of cases attributable to each of several causes. For example, pneumonia is a clinical diagnosis of lung infection that may be caused by viral, bacterial, fungal, or other pathogens. The study of pneumonia etiology is challenging because directly sampling from the lung to identify the etiologic pathogen is not standard clinical practice in most settings. Instead, measurements from multiple peripheral specimens are made. This paper considers the problem of estimating the *population etiology distribution* and the *individual etiology probabilities*. We formulate the scientific problem in statistical terms as estimating the posterior distribution of mixing weights and latent class indicators under a partially-latent class model (pLCM) that combines heterogeneous measurements with different error rates obtained from a case-control study. We introduce the pLCM as an extension of the latent class model. We also introduce graphical displays of the population data and inferred latent-class frequencies. The methods are illustrated with simulated and real data sets. The paper closes with a brief description of extensions of the pLCM to the regression setting and to the case where conditional independence among the measures is relaxed.